Fridge Items That May Last Through a Power Outage

Fridge Items that may last through a power outage

This post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

After a power outage that lasts for a few hours, many people toss out everything that was in the refrigerator.  I always toss out milk, leftovers and meats.  However, not everything in the fridge spoils right away and there are several items that stay shelf stable.

Here is a list of items that do not spoil right away if you have a power outage:

  1. Eggs – Most people store eggs in the fridge especially in the U.S.   In England, grocery stores keep eggs on the shelves and not in the refrigerated section.   So if you have a power outage that lasts for eight hours or even more, the eggs should still be safe to eat.  To test if an egg is still fresh, place an egg in a bowl of water.  If it sinks, and sits on its side, it is fine.  If it sinks and stands on one end, it is not the freshest, but still safe to it.  However, if it floats then it is no longer safe to eat. Before a predicted emergency such as a hurricane, be proactive and preserve eggs by coating them in mineral oil – I tried this and the eggs lasted on the shelf for several months.
  2. Salted Butter – I’ve kept a bar of salted butter in a covered dish outside the refrigerator overnight so it can soften for use with toast the next day, and it has never spoiled.   The high fat content/low water content of butter keeps bacteria from growing rapidly.  The salt content in the butter gives it a longer shelf life, but unsalted butter will spoil quickly.
  3. Yogurt – I already make my own yogurt in a crockpot and part of the process is to let is sit for several hours.  So if you were to lose power for a few hours, the yogurt will taste warm but it should still be safe.  However, I personally would throw it out if it was a long power outage (eight hours or more)
  4. Condiments with vinegar – Hot sauce, ketchup and mustard contain vinegar and will stay useable after several hours being unrefrigerated.  In fact, many people keep these items in the shelf, with no ill effects.
  5. Soy sauce – I have a friendly argument with one of my in-laws about this:  she keeps her soy sauce in the fridge, because “the label says so.”  I have never kept mine refrigerated, and it has never gone bad on me.
  6. Hard cheeses – Cheeses with a hard consistency like cheddar or swiss cheese will not spoil right away.  Also, Velveeta and other processed cheeses should be fine.  Soft cheeses like cream cheese, cottage cheese should be tossed.Perishables
  7. Fruits and vegetables – Some fruits, like strawberries, peaches, watermelon will get moldy very quickly without refrigeration.  But fruits like apples, oranges, lemons and limes will  keep well even if left out.  Tomatoes are also better left out of the fridge.
  8. Herbs – You should be able to tell right away if the herbs that were in the crisper have gone bad.  Green onions, mint, basil and other stems can be set in a jar of water to lengthen their freshness.

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Your results may vary according to food freshness and length of power outage.  Use your best judgement when you check your fridge contents.  When in doubt, throw it out.

What fridge items have you found to last longer than expected?

© Apartment Prepper 2016




10 Ways to Avoid Wasting Bread

10 ways to avoid wasting breadLiving in a hot and humid climate, I noticed that bread goes stale a lot quicker than when a lived in a dry area.   I always feel bad having to throw out stale bread so I started finding ways to make it last longer or re-purpose it.  Here are a few ways that have worked well for me:

  1.  Freeze it  If I have extra, I just keep a few slices on the counter and freeze the rest.  I thought I’d be able to tell the difference in quality but there really was no noticeable difference in taste or texture after it was thawed.
  2.  Refrigerate and Toast it
    I also tried storing bread in the fridge.  I did notice a difference in the texture – it gets a bit harder, but if you toast the bread, then no one can tell.
  3. Make croutons  It is very easy to make croutons.  Just slice the bread in squares, toss with a teaspoon of olive oil and season with salt and pepper.  Garlic and onion powder also add a nice flavor.  Bake at 375°, mixing them occasionally, around 10-15 minutes or until they turn golden.
  4. Garlic Bread Sticks    Butter the bread slices.  Season with garlic salt.  Slice the bread into 1 inch wide strips.  Bake at 375°, mixing them occasionally, around 10 minutes.  The butter seems to make them darken a bit quicker than olive oil.  Serve with your favorite pasta dish.
  5. Bread crumbs
    Freeze leftover bread before it goes stale.  Once you have enough pieces to make a batch, bake them in the oven at 250-300 for 10-15 minutes.  Place in a blender or food processor.  I’ve even used a cheese grater to make bread crumbs when I didn’t have either one and it worked.
  6. Grilled cheese sandwiches    I learned how to make grilled cheese sandwiches watching hospital cafeteria workers in one of my first jobs.  Toast two pieces of bread lightly first. Then add a tablespoon of butter to the pan or grill.  Place cheddar cheese in between the bread and brown both sides of the sandwich in the pan.  Serve with a slice of tomato and pickles.
  7. Stretch ground beef for hamburger, meatloaf or meatballs.
  8. French toast   Lightly toast the bread.   Scramble an egg and add cinnamon, vanilla and a tablespoon of milk.  Dip the toasted bread in the egg until it is moistened, and fry in a buttered pan.  It is ready when it is golden brown.  Serve with maple or pancake syrup.
  9. Thicken soups  You can add pieces of bread into any soup to thicken the consistency.
  10. Feed the birds  If you no longer want to eat it, cut bread in small pieces and use as bird feed.

I know there are many more uses for bread, such as making bread pudding, or French onion soup, etc.  but these are the ones I have tried.

 

Can Food Shortages Happen Here?

Can Food Shortages Happen Here

This post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

I’ve been seeing news articles about the food shortages happening in Venezuela:  people standing in line for hours just to get their basic necessities, their National Guard closely watching shoppers to prevent fights from breaking out, and rows of empty shelves inside the stores.

This got me thinking, what would happen if there were food shortages here?  Can you imagine having to get in line just to enter the grocery store?  Or worse, you get in line at dawn and by the time your turn comes, there is nothing left on the shelves.  What if you were not able to find your basic food items at the grocery store?  

Actually I did have one experience of having to wait in line for an hour just to enter the supermarket.  And when I did manage to get in, the shelves were bare and most of the items were completely gone.  This was back in 2008 right after Hurricane Ike swept across Houston.  The streets were flooded and truck deliveries were not coming.  That was when I learned about “just in time” inventory – grocery stores keep just enough stock until the next truck delivery.  I ever asked a store clerk if they had any food “back in the store room” and was told “stores don’t do that anymore.”  Luckily, the problem I experienced was short term, and stores started getting deliveries as soon as flood waters receded.

But this experience showed me that our system is vulnerable.  If the trucks stop coming, supplies aren’t delivered.  All it takes would be an interruption in that supply chain.

Back in World War II the US had widespread shortages of essential items and many things we take for granted today were rationed:  butter, meat, cheese, sugar, canned fruit and vegetables, oils, even coffee.  Shoppers could only purchase certain items on certain days.  It was then that people put up “Victory Gardens” to supplement their food and learned to conserve food and plan their meals.

If there were a food shortage today, I think people would be a lot angrier and more demanding and food riots would result.  I haven’t forgotten this experience: Up Close Reminder to Continue Prepping from a year ago.  And this was just for roast chicken running out!

What can you do?

Build your food storage pantry.    While things are available, and nothing is interrupting the supply chain, now is the time to add to your food storage.  Build up a few weeks worth of your most used foods:  rice, sugar, salt, coffee, olive oil, peanut butter, oatmeal, cereal etc.  While you’re at it, stock up on toilet paper, toothpaste, soap and other personal care items.

Avoid wasting food.  Learn a few skills to avoid wasting food.  I tell my kids, “Don’t waste food, because one day, you may miss a meal for whatever reason – getting picked up late, forgetting your lunch, and you will think about the food you threw away.”  This actually works because they do remember.

Start a garden.  It may be the middle of winter now, but spring is not far off – it wouldn’t hurt to start planning your garden, even if you only have a balcony or a sunny window.

Back to the original question:  Can food shortages happen here?  Some may say, no way, that only happens in countries like Venezuela.  But the true answer is, Sure they could, and they have happened before.  We hope it never happens but just like insurance, it’s better to have it, and not need it, than need it and not have it.

© Apartment Prepper 2015

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Emergency Uses for Old Socks

Emergency Uses for Old SocksThis post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

Some of the most commonly thrown out items of clothing are old socks.  Even if you are careful about keeping them together, invariably, one will get lost.  Don’t throw them out – there are some good emergency uses for old socks.  I keep a bag of clean, mismatched socks for cleaning.

Here are a few more ideas:

Dusting

Instead of using paper towels, save a few tube socks and use them for dusting. Put your hand inside the sock and dust your surfaces.  Even the ones with holes can be salvaged for dusting.

 Warm your hands

Put socks over your hands before putting on gloves to give you an extra layer of warmth.

Prevent Door Drafts

You can also fill up the sock with other materials such as rags and use as a barrier under doors or windows to keep draft from entering your home.

Layer up

Of course, you can wear old socks under other socks as another layer of insulation for when it gets really cold. No one is going to see them nor care if they are mismatched.

Heating pad for aches and pains

Fill up and old cotton sock (must have no holes in it) about 1/2 – 2/3 full with rice and sew the edge shut. You now have an instant warmer.   Microwave the rice sock for one to two minutes and apply it to the affected area.  Or, use it to warm yourself up in the winter.

Ice pack

Similarly, you can use an old sock when you need an ice bag:  Fill a baggie with ice, zip it shut and place inside a sock.  The sock acts like a barrier between the ice and your skin.

Hiding Place

I sometimes hide extra cash inside an old sock and throw them among others. Just make sure the sock does not have any holes and remember where you stashed it.

Weapon

A large handful of coins inside a sock with the open end tied together can be used as a makeshift weapon in an emergency situation if you are being attacked.

Filter for Water

If you are desperate, use a clean sock to strain out solids from water.  You will still need to boil or purify the water, but at least you can remove rocks and other debris.

Scrubber

A single sock can be used instead of a sponge or scrubber.

Shoe Polisher

You can use an old sock to polish old shoes.  See Basic Shoe Care for tips and use your old socks as rags.

Cushion for Packing

I’ve used old socks to pack away fragile items such as Christmas ornaments, porcelain etc.  You can also use them to wrap shoes before placing in your luggage.

Prevent Scuffing

When moving furniture, wrap old socks around chair legs and other furniture parts that may scuff the floor or walls.

With all these multiple uses, you’ll want to give your old socks a second chance before throwing them in the trash.

Please share in the comments your favorite uses for old socks.

© Apartment Prepper 2015

 

 

 

Use Up that Mushy Watermelon – Watermelon Slushie

Watermelon Slushie 3This post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

I haven’t done a Self Sufficiency Saturday post in a while so I thought I’d feature something light and easy today.

Every time I buy a watermelon half of it gets mushy in the refrigerator before it gets eaten.  I end up throwing it away and I hate wasting food.   Learning how to use leftovers is a good self-sufficiency skill and also a wise use of resources.

One day I decided to experiment with the leftover watermelon.  I froze the mushy watermelon (seeds removed) chunks.

After they were frozen, I threw them in the blender (we use a Nutribullet) and made watermelon slushie.  It tasted great!  The whole family enjoyed it  We had a delicious treat and all the watermelon got used up.

Here is the recipe:  Please note these are estimates and you may have to adjust according to your blender capacity and to your taste.

Ingredients:

Watermelon Slushie 12 cups frozen watermelon (you can use fresh watermelon but add ice)

1 cup cold water

juice of 1-2 limes

1/2 cup of sugar

Watermelon Slushie 4Directions:

Add all ingredients into the blender.   Puree or blend at high speed for one to two minutes until well mixed.

That’s it!

Watermelon Slushie 2

© Apartment Prepper 2014

 

When There is No Coffee

When There is No Coffee

This post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

I’ve had a splitting headache since this morning.  I’ve tried natural cures, then taken Excedrin for Migraine, then later Aleve, but nothing has helped.  I was thinking “Why do I have this headache?,” then I realized I got busy and didn’t get my coffee this morning.  I always have two cups.  Now I am paying for my oversight.

This got me thinking, if there is a disaster and we can’t get our morning coffee, there would be a huge number of sufferers like me.  Mr Apt Prepper keeps telling me it’s time to wean myself off, but I am not ready.  What are our options?

1.  Stock up on coffee (and the water to brew it!)

Green coffee beans

Green coffee beans last much longer than roasted ground coffee.  My favorite is Kona coffee.  I keep a small amount with my food storage.  One of the first things I learned was how to brew coffee off grid.

Instant coffee

When I go camping or backpacking I bring the little instant Starbucks packets as they are lightweight and flavorful.  I have even tested the expired ones, and they turned out fine.  I have a about a week’s worth.

Don’t forget to stock up extra water to brew your coffee.  As we are learning from the recent water emergencies such as the one in Toledo Ohio, threats to tap water can occur at any time.  Make sure you stock up on water.

Tip:  Make your supplies last longer by using less and avoiding waste.  Some ideas:  Make iced coffee from the previous day’s old coffee.  You can also freeze leftover coffee or iced coffee and use to cool your next batch.  You can also stretch coffee grounds by reusing them the next day and using a quarter less grounds for the next day’s brew.

2.  Stock up on other caffeine sources

Tea

Like Captain Jean-Luc Picard of Star Trek The Next Generation, I prefer Earl Grey, and keep a box just in case.  I also have some Chai and black teas as backup.

Colas and other sodas with caffeine

I am not much of a soda drinker, but Coke, Barq’s Root Beer and Mountain Dew are examples of sodas that contain caffeine.  They may be an alternative for some.

Energy drinks

Red Bull and other energy drinks also contain caffeine.  But you have to watch your intake, as some have additional additives that cause rapid heartbeat or high blood pressure.

No Doze

Pills would not be my choice, but for long drives and having to stay up all night, they may be necessary to stay awake.

3.  Herbs or energizing herb teas

Certain herbal supplements and teas are known to boost energy such as ginseng, yerba mate, ashwagandha.  (When taking herb teas or supplements, be aware of both benefits and/or side effects.)

I have tried alternatives such as dandelion tea, which has a lot of health benefits, but I have not found one that is as satisfying as my morning coffee.  Flowers like hibiscus can be made into teas as well- see hibiscus tea recipe here.  Of course if it were grid down SHTF type situation, I am sure I’d be grateful for anything, even pine needle tea which I have brewed as well.

4.  Slowly give up the coffee habit

A co-worker of mine who used to drink two cups of coffee daily like me slowly got himself off.  He switched gradually to one cup of coffee a day for a couple of weeks, then switched to tea.  In another week or two he switched to herb teas and no longer craves the caffeine fix.

I’ve actually cut down from my previous four cups to two cups, but that’s as far as I got.

My excuse is, I don’t smoke, drink or shop for recreation, so I allow myself this one indulgence.  I just have to make sure I make it a point to keep adding to my emergency stash.  Even if nothing happens, I know it won’t be wasted.

 © Apartment Prepper 2014

15 Ways to Repurpose Old Nylons

15 Ways to Repurpose Old NylonsThis post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

Nylons aka pantyhose, stockings, tights or even knee highs are some of the most commonly discarded items. It is easy to ruin a pair of nylons as soon as you open the package.  Before you toss them out, you may be able to get some other uses out of them.

  1. If one pair develops a run on one leg, cut off that leg but keep the good one. When another pair springs a run on the opposite leg, cut that off and wear in on your other leg.
  2. Wearing a pair of nylons under pants gives you an extra layer of warmth. They are almost like thermal underwear.
  3. Keeps blisters away. Wear nylons (such as knee highs) under your hiking socks to prevent blisters.
  4. Protection from ticks and chiggers: Wearing an old pair of nylons under your pants will protect your ankles from ticks and chiggers while you’re out in the wilderness.
  5. Strainer: My mom who grew up in lean times showed me that old, thoroughly washed nylons can be used as strainers, if you don’t have cheesecloth or coffee filters.
  6. Storage: Cut the legs off and you can use the legs as storage for onions and garlic. Tie a knot in between each bulb to keep them separate and hang the whole thing up.
  7. Scrubbing and cleaning:  Use a wadded up nylon instead of a sponge.  For hard to reach places, secure on a broom handle with a rubber band and scrub.
  8. Plant ties: Because they are soft and flexible, nylons make good garden ties. I’ve tied tomato plants against a stick or cage to prop them up and climbing plants against a trellis.
  9. Protection for growing fruit and vegetables. You can use nylons to protect a growing watermelon or squash from insects.
  10. Collect soap scraps that are too small and place inside a piece of nylon and tie a knot.
  11. Cut off one foot from nylons, place a bar of soap inside, tie a knot and now you can hang the bar of soap and keep it from melting.
  12. If you lose an earring or some other small object, place a piece of nylon over your vacuum cleaner hose, secure with a rubber band and start the vacuum. The nylon will keep the vacuum from sucking up the item.
  13. Repair a pillow, bean bag or stuffed animal that is needing more padding by placing wadded up nylons inside.
  14. If you don’t have string, tie several and stretch them across a space for an emergency clothes line.  Or, if you are just drying one shirt, stretch the nylon to span across two sleeves and tie the two sides up.
  15. Make a potpourri sachet:   Place dried herbs and flowers with a drop of essential oil in a small pocket of nylon.  Tie with a ribbon or sew shut.

Have I missed anything?  Please feel free to add some additional uses in the comments.

© Apartment Prepper 2014

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Having Gear Does Not Guarantee Preparedness

Solar ChargerThis article is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

 

One of the first things people do when they get interested in prepping is going out and buying gear.  It is great to have a list and just check off items you already just purchased.  Whew!  Got the stuff, now I’m prepared.  Well… sort of.  There is one critical step that is being missed.

Use it!

I’ve heard and read comments from people who, on one hand, have made the commitment to be prepared and are buying the items needed;  but on the other hand, when asked how the things worked, they say, “I don’t know, I haven’t opened the box yet-I’m saving it for an emergency..”  I am glad they are getting started, but not even opening the box to check it is a critical error.

Here’s why:

The item might not work.   When we first got started we bought some cheap stuff that ended up being junk.   Sure, it might be better than nothing, but why rely on something that will fail you when you most need it?  Being in the middle of a power outage would not be a good time to find out your flashlight does not work, or you did not have the correct size batteries for it.  Which brings me to the next point…

Know what you actually need to make the item work.   For example if you have a backpacking stove for a power outage, you will need fuel for that stove.  If you had never opened the box, you may not know this until the day you try to use it.

Some gear need maintenance  Knives, machetes and other items with edges need be sharpened or oiled, firearms need to be cleaned, even

Know how outside factors affect the use of some items  Until you actually practice with the gear, you won’t know how it will work in the “real world”  You may remember my bear spray experiment  where we found out how just how fast you need to use that spray when being attacked, and how a small change in wind direction will affect you.

Read the instructions!  Some things are self-explanatory, but some things are not.  For me, putting a tent together is NOT self-explanatory.   If you have a tent as part of your bug out gear, do yourself a favor and practice with it a few times.  Try assembling it in the day, as well as in the dark.  Putting a tent together at night is a whole experience in itself… especially with kids around.   I know it sounds tedious, but imagine if you were stranded somewhere, and you’re trying to build a tent you’ve never seen assembled, with parts that are still encased in plastic, in the dark, in a rainstorm.

Some items don’t last long   Check your supplies a couple of times a year, so you’ll  know what items have expired or deteriorated over time.  Then you’ll have a chance to repair or replace damaged goods.

Or they may not fit   Another reason to try things out are size changes.  Kids quickly outgrow clothes, backpacks and footwear; adults gain or lose weight so any items that no longer fit should be replaced.

There you have it, a cold, rainy day or a snow bound weekend when you are stuck at  home would be a great opportunity to check your emergency stuff and try things out.  Do it now, before you find yourself in a real emergency.

 © Apartment Prepper 2014

 

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Self-Sufficient Saturdays: How to Make Banana Muffins without an Electric Mixer

Banana muffin1

Welcome to the latest Self-Sufficient Saturdays feature, where we try out projects that can easily be done in an apartment.

Breakfast muffins are a staple at our house for busy weekday breakfasts.  I used to buy them at the store until I found out how easy it is to make muffins yourself.  There are no special ingredients, and you can rescue overripe, black bananas from getting thrown out.

Just one problem:  my cheap hand mixer that I’ve had for six years finally gave up.

My original recipe required an electric mixer to blend all the ingredients.  Creaming butter and sugar just does not work well without one.   I’ve tried it, and the results were not great.  Through trial and error, I finally found a muffin recipe that works well with hand mixing.  Here is the recipe.

Mushy bananas1

Ingredients:

  • 2-3 ripe bananas
  • 1/3 cup melted butter
  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • Pinch of salt
  • 1 1/2 cups of all-purpose flour
  • 3 tbsp sour cream or plain yogurt (I used the homemade kind)
  • Optional:  paper muffin cups to line the muffin tin, OR use cooking oil to grease the muffin tin

Directions:

1.  Preheat the oven to 350°F.  Line the muffin tin with paper cups if you are using them; otherwise, grease the muffin tin with cooking oil.

2.  Mash the bananas with a fork in a large mixing bowl.

3.  With a spatula or large spoon, mix the melted butter with the mashed bananas.

4.  Mix in the sugar, egg, and vanilla.

5.  Sprinkle the baking soda and salt over the mixture and mix in. Add the flour last and keeping mixing.  You can tell it is well mixed when you no longer see any dry powdery lumps.

Scooping muffin mix1

6.  Pour the mixture into the muffin tin. Tip:  The easiest way to do it is by using an ice cream scoop to pour the muffin mix into the muffin cups.

7.  Bake for 30 to 45 minutes.  My oven gets very hot so it only takes about 35 minutes so check often.  You can tell the muffins are done when you poke with a fork and the fork comes out clean.   I plan to buy a solar oven one of these days, (as soon as the budget allows) and this will be one of the first recipes I plan to make in a solar oven.

These muffins will stay fresh in the fridge from one to two weeks.  But they may get eaten way before then!

 

Bartering For Preppers

Bartering for Preppers is a Guest Post by Robert Creech

As everyone who engages in some form of prepping knows, it’s expensive. Most of us will never have all of the gear and resources we want, instead we prioritize and get by with what we can. However I’ve found that many people are leaving money on the table, so to speak, because they have skills (and maybe resources) that they aren’t fully utilizing. Yes, I’m talking about bartering.

You have to remember that every other prepper is like you; they’re trying to acquire skills and resources on a limited budget, to learn everything they can about self-sufficiency. They’re also people trying to make a living and get by, so any opportunity they have to barter, to gain something, is almost always welcome. How about you? Are you willing to teach someone a skill, or trade a service or resource you have?

Do you have a particular skill set that others might be interested in? Maybe you’ve become quite adept at apartment gardening and have perfected ways to grow essential plants in a terrace garden or from balcony planters. You would be surprised at the number of people in your area who would be willing to trade something they have for you to teach them how to start gardening, one of the fastest growing areas of interest among city dwellers.

Maybe you know how to can or preserve foods, how to reload ammunition, how to set snares for trapping, how to secure an apartment from intruders, how to make primitive weapons… almost everyone has skills or knowledge that others would like to have. If yours is academic knowledge, then you can put it in a guidebook or e-book, and offer it that way. And it may not even be prepping related, the skills or resources you have to barter. If you’re a mechanic or plumber you’ll almost certainly find people willing to barter their resources for your time or guidance on a project.

So how do you set it up? Craigslist is perhaps one of the greatest resources people have… the Barter Kings use it for a reason. You can list your skills or resources in two different sections… the first is the For SaleBarter section, and the other is under Services. Simply write in what it is that you have to offer (or what you will do for them), and what it is you’re looking for. If you want someone to help you set up a solar oven, then say so. Perhaps you are looking for a new backpack because yours is too small, simply tell the reader what you can offer and what you’re looking to get.

More times than not people will contact you offering something other than what you asked for, but that is fine. Bartering is always good and maybe they have something else you can use, or that you can trade further. In fact you might be surprised to find that you like the art of bartering and meeting new people, and at how much you are able to learn along the way. Since you live in an apartment, maybe you’ll be fortunate and meet someone out of town who has property that you can use… for gardening or target practice.

And the final point to this whole bartering activity is perhaps the most important… you will be actively engaging in networking, building contacts and resources along the way, many of whom will be like-minded preppers. Before you know it you’ll be amazed at how much you can acquire and learn through bartering.

About the Author   Robert Creech began a career in law enforcement in the early 1990’s, culminating in serving as the elected Sheriff of his county for two terms. He’s a graduate of two state law enforcement academies as well as many executive level training programs for law enforcement administrators. Robert writes almost exclusively on Squidoo; check out his latest article about Prepping.   http://www.squidoo.com/prepping-preparedness

 

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