Using Four Year Old Rice

FourYearOldRiceThis post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

We are rotating the first batch of rice we stored away and replacing it with the new batch.  I bought the rice back in April 2010 but did not repackage it for for long term storage until November 2010.  Usually, rice that is left in a pantry with no special packaging will last one to two years.

Since this is the first time I am using my rice storage I was really curious as to how the mylar bag/oxygen absorber packed rice held up.  We don’t keep it especially cold in our apartment – usually 75-78 degrees, and it does get humid indoors sometimes.

First, Mr. Apt Prepper opened up the five gallon bucket.  I didn’t realize they are not the easiest things to open, which is actually a good thing, because you know the contents are safe.  After he released the plastic zip seal, he had to slowly pry open the lid with a butter knife.  It would have been easier to have a bucket opener so I added one to the Amazon wish list.

Rice in mylar bagOnce opened, we examined the mylar bags inside and found them to be the same as when we packed them nearly four years ago.  The bags were still very much air tight as they shrink around the food once the oxygen absorber activates.  When I opened a bag, I found that the oxygen absorber was still soft and fresh, and did not harden as expired ones do.  I poured the contents into a jar, and cooked up a batch.

Pouring rice from mylar bagThe rice tasted good and there was no difference in taste or texture at all.  I am really glad the process works, and feel confident the food storage will hold up for many years.

Buying food in bulk and repackaging it yourself is a cost effective way to store for emergency long term storage.  As long as you keep rotating your food, it will not go to waste.  If you’d like to get started repackaging bulk food for long term storage, the easiest method is described here.

© Apartment Prepper 2014

Don’t Toss them Out: 12 Uses for Fruit Peels

12 Uses for Fruit Peels

This post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

With the price of food so high these days, one of my goals is to avoid food waste, and have been finding interesting ways to grow vegetables from trash.  With spring comes a huge variety of fruit, which I enjoy, but I always feel bad about throwing out the peels.  So I started using them.  Consider these uses and you may never throw them out again.

 

Dried fruit peels

  1. Potpourri:  Dry or dehydrate orange, lemon, tangerine or grapefruit peels.  You can add them to prepared potpourri or make your own.  To dry them without a food dehydrator, follow these steps.
  2. Temporary seed starter:   This works for peels that are bowl shaped and sturdy such as avocado.  Slice the fruit in half, and after scooping out the inside fruit, fill with garden soil and plant your seeds.
  3. Shoe shiner:  Banana peels are great for this – just use the inside of the banana peels to shine your leather shoes.
  4. Marmalade:  Citrus peels are great for making marmalade.  (Note:  If you are going to use the peels for food, try to use organic fruit if you can.  Either way, always clean the peels thoroughly before using.)
  5. Air freshener:  There are a couple of ways to do this:  Cut up the lemon or orange peel into one inch pieces and run them through the garbage disposal.  I’ve done this for years and it does freshen up the garbage disposal and sink.  Or, take whatever citrus peels you have a boil for a few minutes.  The smell will freshen up your kitchen.
  6. Hand softener:  My dad actually taught me this trick:  After peeling a pineapple, rub the fruit side all over your hands and leave on for a few minutes before washing.   Your hands will feel really soft.  Pineapple has an enzyme called bromelain that has anti-inflammatory and cleansing properties.
  7. Sink scrubber:  After squeezing the juice out, I’ve used lemon and orange peel slices as sink or counter scrubbers.  The leftover juice is great for cleaning, and the pulpy part is great for removing grime.
  8. Insect repellant:  Release the orange oil but rubbing the outer part of the orange skin on your skin.  These oils repel mosquitoes and other flying insects.  (Test on a small area first to avoid irritation.)  Orange peels will also repel ants – just leave in areas infested by ants.
  9. Cat repellant:  To keep cats from digging up your garden, leave orange peels around – they don’t like the scent.
  10. Compost:  Fruit peels are great for compost.  If you don’t have space to have a compost pile, you can also cut up the peels and bury them around your garden.  The peels will decompose and supplement your soil.Lemon-vinegar cleaner
  11. Addition to natural cleaners:  Add lemon or orange peels to a jar and fill with vinegar.  Leave it alone for a week or two, strain and use as grease cutter or all-purpose cleaner.  Here is a good recipe for homemade cleaner.
  12. Tea flavoring:  Even after squeezing the juice out, you can use orange, lemon or grapefruit and a flavoring for teas.

© Apartment Prepper 2014

 

Read this Before you Toss out Expired Medications

Read this Before You Toss Out Expired Meds

This post is by Bernie Carr, apartmentprepper.com

I mentioned a few weeks ago I’d be clearing out and rotating my supplies.  Upon opening the first aid bucket, we found a lot of over the counter medications that were at or have reached their expiration dates.  The boxes and seals were unopened, so I was hesitant about throwing them all out.  So I reached out to our community experts, Dr. Joe Alton, aka Dr. Bones of www.doomandbloom.net and Dr. James Hubbard aka The Survival Doctor to find out their thoughts.  I gave them a list of the medications in my storage.  I did not expect a response from both, after all doctors are busy so I thought if I get one response it’ll be great.   I was fortunate to get a prompt response from both!   Both were fine about my posting their responses.  Here is what they said.

From James Hubbard, MD, The Survival Doctor

Most solid medicine stays good long past their expiration dates. Some studies have shown antibiotics, in particular, can be quite effective for several years. Usually, the worst thing that happens is the effectiveness of the medication gets less with time. I recommend buying medicines with the farthest expiration dates available, staying refreshed by using the ones closest to expiration date for everyday use, and immediately replacing those with a newer medicine. Store all in a cool, dry place. Moisture and heat can make many medicine deteriorate much faster than they otherwise would.
Here’s a link to a 2000 Wall Street Journal article. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB954201508530067326.html?dsk=y  The Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) is the study usually mentioned when citing prove that medicines last longer than their expiration date. And here’s another article that has tables that cite specific medicines and their extension times. http://www.ofcaems.org/ds-Stability_Profiles.pdf
Dr. Hubbard did suggest I could start a new supply and buy new ones remembering what I wrote above.
From Joe Alton, MD, aka Dr. Bones of www.doomandbloom.net   
Dr. Alton sent me a file:  http://www.ofcaems.org/ds-Stability_Profiles.pdf
listing the results of testing on expired medications.  He said, “It has all the meds listed, and I think it includes many of the medicines you mention in generic form. I would say this about aspirin: if it goes bad, it tends to smell a little like ammonia (just a personal observation on some very old meds).  Otherwise, I wouldn’t throw them away.”Here’s another article I wrote October 2012 about some interesting tests on some drugs found in a storage room of a pharmacy that were 28-40 years expired:

October 8, 2012 — An analysis of 8 medications indicates that most of the active ingredients they contain were present in adequate amounts decades after the drugs’ expiration dates, according to results from a study published online in the Archives of Internal Medicine. 

Lee Cantrell, PharmD, from the California Poison Control System, San Diego Division, University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy, and colleagues used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to measure the amounts of the active ingredients in the medications. The medicines, which had expired 28 to 40 years ago, were found in a retail pharmacy in their original, unopened packaging.

To meet US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards, an active ingredient must be present in 90% to 110% of the amount indicated on the label. Drug expiration dates are set for 12 to 60 months after production, even though many compounds can persist far longer.

In the new analysis, 12 of the 14 active ingredients persisted in concentrations that were 90% or greater of the amount indicated on the label. These 12 compounds retained their full potency for 336 months (Dr. Bones 28 years) or longer. Eight of them retained potency for at least 480 months (dr. bones: 40 years). Dr. Cantrell’s team was unable to find a standard for homatropine, 1 of the 15 ingredients.

Only aspirin and amphetamine fell below the 90% cutoff. Phenacetin was present at greater than the cutoff in Fiorinal (butalbital, aspirin, caffeine, and codeine phosphate, but was considerably less in Codempiral No. 3. The authors attribute the deficit in Codempiral to conditions that led to preferential degradation of phenacetin because of its amide group, compared with codeine, which is also in Codempiral but is more chemically stable.

Three compounds persisted in greater than 110% of the labeled contents: methaqualone (in Somnafac), meprobamate (in Bamadex), and pentobarbital (in Nebralin). These relatively high amounts may reflect degradation of other components of the compounded drug, the fact that the samples were produced before FDA-instituted quality control measures in 1963, or inconsistencies of the analytical techniques between when the drugs were compounded and now.

The new findings are consistent with the efforts of the Shelf-Life Extension Program, which has extended the expiration dates on 88% of 122 drugs tested so far. Extensions range from 66 to 278 months.  “Our results support the effectiveness of broadly extending expiration dates for many drugs,” the researchers conclude. They also point out that extending shelf life can significantly lower costs to consumers.

Limitations of the analysis, the investigators write, include an inability to confirm the storage conditions of the drug samples, as well as imprecise dating of the samples. The authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

 **************************

For the preparedness community, this information is very important, as it lends credence to what I have been telling you all along:  get your medical supplies together, and don’t throw out drugs in pill or capsule form just because they have passed their expiration dates. 

What did I end up doing?

I kept most of the bottles of aspirin and acetaminophen, rotated them for use now and bought fresh ones for the emergency supply.  I tossed out items that had changed in appearance and odor such as  liquids that appeared darkened, bottles that had tablets that were crumbling.

My thanks to Dr. James Hubbard and Dr. James Alton for their prompt and thoughtful responses.   The prepper community is fortunate to have their expertise to help guide us regarding these issues.

© Apartment Prepper 2014

 

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Uses for Paracord You may not have Considered

Everday Uses for ParacordWhat is paracord?   Paracord is often cited as an essential item in a prepper’s tool box.  It is a lightweight nylon cord that was used for parachutes in World War II. It is also known as 550 cord, as it is rated to hold up to 550 pounds. Paracord is somewhat elastic; it is composed of inner strands and an outer nylon sheath.

Paracord ihas multiple emergency uses such as stringing tarp or tying branches together, securing gear to a luggage rack or securing items to a backpack or go-bag.  The inner strings can be used as a fishing line, to sew or repair clothing, or as substitute for dental floss.

I have found that paracord has many uses around the house, and can be used in day to day living.

  • Make a dog collar

Paracord Dog Collar

  • Create gift items such as bracelets and belts
  • Use as a clothes line
  • Replacement for shoelaces
  • Curtain tie-backs
  • Desk drawer pull  (photo above) My work desk drawer handle broke and I was having a hard time opening it.   We didn’t want to have to go to the home improvement store to buy new drawer hardware so Mr. Apt. Prepper rigged it with leftover paracord.  It works!
  • Repair window blinds. 

Paracord used to fix blinds

I always thought paracord is a helpful item to have around, but now I am convinced it is essential not only for emergencies, but for everyday repairs.

I like being able to use preparedness gear for everyday needs. If you have other uses for paracord, please share them in the comments!

© Apartment Prepper 2014

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Are We Headed for Economic Hard Times?

Food Line Great Depression

Lately, I’ve been noticing a lot of dire predictions about the economy.  Whether they happen as predicted or not, it’s a good idea to pay attention to these signs.

This article for Modern Survival Blog caught my eye:

Major Stock Market Crash In January

If you look at the chart, the patterns between today’s stock market and the time period leading up to the Great Depression (1928-29) look uncomfortably similar.

Then I saw this one from SHTFPlan.com:

15 Signs That We Are Near The Peak Of An Absolutely Massive Stock Market Bubble

You can even find concerns from mainstream sources  Take a look at

Be Prepared For Stocks To Crash 40%-55%

Even Clark Howard who offers practical financial advice weighed in:

Is a stock market crash coming?

It’s Too Close for Comfort

Last week, right before Thanksgiving, it was announced at work that management had done some “restructuring”  and a few employees were laid off.  Those of us who were fortunate to have a job were asked to increase our workload to “add value” to the team.   I felt relieved to have a job, but felt bad for the people who lost theirs.

What is your Economic Crash Plan?

Think about your own worse case economic scenario:  for many it’s the loss of income.  Hopefully, unemployment benefits would cover in the event of a job lay-off.  However, expenses would have to be cut back drastically.

  • How long would your emergency savings last- how many months or rent or mortgage can you cover?
  • Start using emergency supplies to avoid having to buy food.  Find out about food banks and other services that can offer help.
  • Can you borrow from retirement plans?  In a crash, you need to take care of the present and keeping a roof over your head.
  • Consider which relatives can you move in with, if you had to.  As undesirable as the possibility might be, remember it’s only temporary and it would still be better than being homeless.
  • If you don’t have relatives you can move with, can you live in a truck or RV if you had access to one? 

It is hard to even consider these ideas, but this mental exercise will help you plan and cope better should your financial fortune take a turn for the worse.

What you can do now

I am hoping everything continues along as normal, and nothing happens.  But just in case, it is a good idea to implement a few good habits now, while there is time.

  • Build your emergency cash fund by using your skills to earn extra income
  • Go through your unwanted items.  Donate or sell them to make room for supplies that you do need.
  • Don’t go overboard with Christmas spending.  Set a limit for gifts, decorations and entertainment and stick to it.  Pay cash for everything.  Using a card makes it easy to overspend.
  • Look at each non-essential bill and decide if you can do without it:  gym memberships, premium movie channels, etc.  If you are not using it, consider getting rid of the service (but be mindful of contract terms and penalties.)
  • Learn to cook more meals at home, you will feel healthier by avoiding fast food, and you’ll save money.
  • Cut down on discretionary spending now, and send the extra money to savings.
  • Build good relationships at work and in your industry.
  • Stop incurring new debt, pay down debt if you can.
  • Stock up on food and supplies while you can
  • Get your checkups, prescriptions, eyeglasses and any elective medical procedures while you have health insurance
  • Learn survival and self-sufficiency skills now.

These measures can only help your finances in the long run.  Prepare while you can.

 

Camping Survival

Camping Survival

 

 

Self-sufficiency Saturdays: Reusing Zipper Plastic Bags

Just a quick post for today’s self-sufficient Saturday.

Part of becoming self sufficient is learning to make things last as long as possible, so you don’t have to keep buying replacements.

I like the convenience of zippered plastic bags, but don’t like the expense.  I resisted rewashing them because they took so long to dry and there is a chance for mold during our humid summers.  So I figured a way to let them air dry the quickest way possible.

Here is a photo:

Washed ziploc bag

  1. Wash the zipper bags with soap and water.  Rinse thoroughly.
  2. Take a carabiner and attach it to a binder clip.  Hang by the carabiner to a wire hanger, nail or metal shelf.
  3. Hang the zipper bag by one bottom edge and leave it to try.  You can hang multiple bags at once.

I’ve washed gallon, pint, sandwich sizes, all with good results.  (Do not rewash bags that have come in contact with meats.)  If you have a different way of doing this, please share in the comments.

© Apartment Prepper 2013

 

Emergency Essentials/BePrepared

Emergency Essentials/BePrepared

Use Prepper Skills to Avoid Wasting Food

Croutons

Don’t throw out old bread – make croutons!

I was catching up on my article reader and found these two articles about food waste that riled me up: About 40 Percent Of All Food In The United States Is Thrown In The Garbage  and Top 20 Foods Wasted

It is such as shame that so much food is wasted while other people are going hungry.   We can’t do anything about industrial food waste, but we can certainly minimize throwing away good food in our own homes.

The same self-sufficiency skills that we are learning as preppers also come in handy in helping stretch the food dollar by avoiding waste.

Cooking

  • Use your cooking skills to rescue overripe bananas from the trash by making banana bread.
  • Make croutons out of dry, old bread before it turns moldy.  Here’s a quick recipe:  Slice the bread into small squares.  Drizzle olive oil over the bread pieces.  Sprinkle garlic and onion salt over the mixture as well; use your favorite herbs such as basil, oregano etc for flavor.  Bake at 350 degrees for 20 minutes (your oven temps may vary).  Check periodically to make your croutons don’t get overly brown.
  • Make soup or broth out of roast chicken bones, and vegetable scraps.  Store bits of leftover meats, vegetables and starches in a large plastic container in your freezer.  Once you have a good amount, add chicken or beef broth, a few herbs such as parsley and a bay leaf, season with salt and pepper and make soup.
  • When you carve your Halloween pumpkin, don’t throw out the pumpkin seeds.  Wash the seeds thoroughly, removing any pulp.  Dry on a towel or paper towels.  Spread them on a cookie sheet and mix with 2 tbsp of oil.  Add you favorite seasonings or just plain salt and bake in the over at 400 degrees for about 20 minutes.  Keep checking every 10 minutes to they don’t brown too much.  Remove from the oven and allow to cool.  Add some more seasoning if you like.  That’s it!
  • Make it a habit to eat leftovers for lunch the next day.  Now that the holidays are only a few months away, you will have lots of opportunities to stretch your food budget:  See Avoid Holiday Food Waste
  • If your family does not like leftovers, cook less food.  Cut the recipe in half.

Drying

  • I was guilty of using only a pinch of herbs for a recipe and allowing the rest to wilt in the fridge – until I tried drying the herbs myself.  I don’t own a food dehydrated yet, but it is easy to do:  See Drying Herbs without a Food Dehydrator

Canning

  • Canning is a great way to preserve the bounty of each season.  Or, if you find you have an overabundance of a certain fruit in your yard, don’t let them go to waste by canning the extra fruit.  If you don’t want to commit to buying canning equipment, make refrigerator preserves.  They won’t last as long, but at least you can make use of the fruit for a longer time.

Gardening

  • Some of my most popular posts last year was about growing food from trash.  I was surprised to find that new growths could come out of green onion roots, celery stumps and discarded ginger pieces.
  • Use old coffee grounds and crushed egg shells to supplement your soil.

These are just a few ideas for rescuing food and making use of items that would have otherwise been thrown out.  Please share your favorite tips in the comments so everyone can pick up a few ideas.

 

 

 

Self-Sufficient Saturdays: How to Make Banana Muffins without an Electric Mixer

Banana muffin1

Welcome to the latest Self-Sufficient Saturdays feature, where we try out projects that can easily be done in an apartment.

Breakfast muffins are a staple at our house for busy weekday breakfasts.  I used to buy them at the store until I found out how easy it is to make muffins yourself.  There are no special ingredients, and you can rescue overripe, black bananas from getting thrown out.

Just one problem:  my cheap hand mixer that I’ve had for six years finally gave up.

My original recipe required an electric mixer to blend all the ingredients.  Creaming butter and sugar just does not work well without one.   I’ve tried it, and the results were not great.  Through trial and error, I finally found a muffin recipe that works well with hand mixing.  Here is the recipe.

Mushy bananas1

Ingredients:

  • 2-3 ripe bananas
  • 1/3 cup melted butter
  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • Pinch of salt
  • 1 1/2 cups of all-purpose flour
  • 3 tbsp sour cream or plain yogurt (I used the homemade kind)
  • Optional:  paper muffin cups to line the muffin tin, OR use cooking oil to grease the muffin tin

Directions:

1.  Preheat the oven to 350°F.  Line the muffin tin with paper cups if you are using them; otherwise, grease the muffin tin with cooking oil.

2.  Mash the bananas with a fork in a large mixing bowl.

3.  With a spatula or large spoon, mix the melted butter with the mashed bananas.

4.  Mix in the sugar, egg, and vanilla.

5.  Sprinkle the baking soda and salt over the mixture and mix in. Add the flour last and keeping mixing.  You can tell it is well mixed when you no longer see any dry powdery lumps.

Scooping muffin mix1

6.  Pour the mixture into the muffin tin. Tip:  The easiest way to do it is by using an ice cream scoop to pour the muffin mix into the muffin cups.

7.  Bake for 30 to 45 minutes.  My oven gets very hot so it only takes about 35 minutes so check often.  You can tell the muffins are done when you poke with a fork and the fork comes out clean.   I plan to buy a solar oven one of these days, (as soon as the budget allows) and this will be one of the first recipes I plan to make in a solar oven.

These muffins will stay fresh in the fridge from one to two weeks.  But they may get eaten way before then!

 

The Prepper’s Pantry

The Prepper’s Pantry

Fridge Items that are Salvageable after a Power Outage

Perishables2After a power outage that lasts for a few hours, many people toss out everything that was in the refrigerator.  Actually, not everything in the fridge spoils right away and there are several items that stay shelf stable.  (Caution:  Your results may vary according to food freshness and length of power outage – use your best judgement when you check your fridge contents – when in doubt, throw it out.)

Here is a list of items that do not spoil right away if you have a power outage:

  1. Eggs – Most people store eggs in the fridge especially in the U.S.   In England, grocery stores keep eggs on the shelves and not in the refrigerated section.   So if you have a power outage that lasts for eight hours or even more, the eggs should still be safe to eat.  Before an expected emergency such as a hurricane, be proactive and preserve eggs by coating them in mineral oil – I tried this and the eggs lasted on the shelf for several months.
  2. Salted Butter – I’ve kept a bar of salted butter in a covered dish outside the refrigerator overnight so it can soften for use with toast the next day, and it has never spoiled.   The salt content in the butter gives it a longer shelf life, but unsalted butter will definitely spoil.
  3. Yogurt – I already make my own yogurt in a crockpot and part of the process is to let is sit for several hours.  So if you were to lose power for a few hours, the yogurt will taste warm but it should still be safe.  However, I personally would throw it out if it was a long power outage (eight hours or more)
  4. Condiments with vinegar – Hot sauce, ketchup and mustard contain vinegar and will stay useable after several hours being unrefrigerated.  In fact, many people keep these items in the shelf, with no ill effects.
  5. Soy sauce – I have a friendly argument with one of my in-law about this:  she keeps her soy sauce in the fridge, because “the label says so.”  I have never kept mine refrigerated, and it has never gone bad on me.
  6. Hard cheeses – Cheeses with a hard consistency like cheddar or swiss cheese will not spoil right away.  Also, Velveeta and other processed cheeses should be fine.  Soft cheeses like cream cheese, cottage cheese should be tossed.
  7. Fruits and vegetables – Some fruits, like strawberries, peaches, watermelon will get moldy very quickly without refrigeration.  But fruits like apples, oranges, lemons and limes will  keep well even if left out.  Tomatoes are also better left out of the fridge.  Tip:  celery, green onions and herbs can be set in a jar of water to lengthen their freshness.

PerishablesWhat fridge items have you found to last longer than expected?

 

Bartering For Preppers

Bartering for Preppers is a Guest Post by Robert Creech

As everyone who engages in some form of prepping knows, it’s expensive. Most of us will never have all of the gear and resources we want, instead we prioritize and get by with what we can. However I’ve found that many people are leaving money on the table, so to speak, because they have skills (and maybe resources) that they aren’t fully utilizing. Yes, I’m talking about bartering.

You have to remember that every other prepper is like you; they’re trying to acquire skills and resources on a limited budget, to learn everything they can about self-sufficiency. They’re also people trying to make a living and get by, so any opportunity they have to barter, to gain something, is almost always welcome. How about you? Are you willing to teach someone a skill, or trade a service or resource you have?

Do you have a particular skill set that others might be interested in? Maybe you’ve become quite adept at apartment gardening and have perfected ways to grow essential plants in a terrace garden or from balcony planters. You would be surprised at the number of people in your area who would be willing to trade something they have for you to teach them how to start gardening, one of the fastest growing areas of interest among city dwellers.

Maybe you know how to can or preserve foods, how to reload ammunition, how to set snares for trapping, how to secure an apartment from intruders, how to make primitive weapons… almost everyone has skills or knowledge that others would like to have. If yours is academic knowledge, then you can put it in a guidebook or e-book, and offer it that way. And it may not even be prepping related, the skills or resources you have to barter. If you’re a mechanic or plumber you’ll almost certainly find people willing to barter their resources for your time or guidance on a project.

So how do you set it up? Craigslist is perhaps one of the greatest resources people have… the Barter Kings use it for a reason. You can list your skills or resources in two different sections… the first is the For SaleBarter section, and the other is under Services. Simply write in what it is that you have to offer (or what you will do for them), and what it is you’re looking for. If you want someone to help you set up a solar oven, then say so. Perhaps you are looking for a new backpack because yours is too small, simply tell the reader what you can offer and what you’re looking to get.

More times than not people will contact you offering something other than what you asked for, but that is fine. Bartering is always good and maybe they have something else you can use, or that you can trade further. In fact you might be surprised to find that you like the art of bartering and meeting new people, and at how much you are able to learn along the way. Since you live in an apartment, maybe you’ll be fortunate and meet someone out of town who has property that you can use… for gardening or target practice.

And the final point to this whole bartering activity is perhaps the most important… you will be actively engaging in networking, building contacts and resources along the way, many of whom will be like-minded preppers. Before you know it you’ll be amazed at how much you can acquire and learn through bartering.

About the Author   Robert Creech began a career in law enforcement in the early 1990’s, culminating in serving as the elected Sheriff of his county for two terms. He’s a graduate of two state law enforcement academies as well as many executive level training programs for law enforcement administrators. Robert writes almost exclusively on Squidoo; check out his latest article about Prepping.   http://www.squidoo.com/prepping-preparedness

 

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